Reductive Explanation in the Biological Sciences (History, by Marie I. Kaiser

By Marie I. Kaiser

This book develops a philosophical account that finds the key features that make an evidence within the existence sciences reductive and distinguish them from non-reductive reasons. knowing what reductive factors are allows one to evaluate the stipulations lower than which reductive causes are enough and hence complements debates approximately explanatory reductionism. The account of reductive clarification offered during this ebook has 3 significant features. First, it emerges from a serious reconstruction of the explanatory perform of the existence sciences itself. moment, the account is monistic because it specifies one set of standards that observe to factors within the lifestyles sciences often. ultimately, the account is ontic in that it lines the reductivity of an explanation back to definite family members that exist among gadgets on this planet (such as part-whole kinfolk and point relations), instead of to the logical kin among sentences. starting with a disclosure of the meta-philosophical assumptions that underlie the author’s research of reductive rationalization, the publication leads into the debate about reduction(ism) within the philosophy of biology and maintains with a dialogue at the views on explanatory aid that have been proposed within the philosophy of biology to date. the writer scrutinizes how the problem of relief turns into entangled with explanation and analyzes options, the concept that of a organic half and the idea that of a degree of association. the result of those 5 chapters represent the floor on which the writer bases her ultimate bankruptcy, constructing her ontic account of reductive explanation.

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The Common Sense of Science by Jacob Bronowski

By Jacob Bronowski

Jacob Bronowski was once, with Kenneth Clarke, the best popularizer of great rules in Britain among the mid Nineteen Fifties and the early Nineteen Seventies. proficient as a mathematician, he used to be both at domestic with portray and physics, and wrote a sequence of very good books that attempted to collapse the boundaries among 'the cultures'. He denounced 'the damaging glossy prejudice that paintings and technology are diverse and by some means incompatible interests'. He wrote an excellent e-book on William Blake whereas operating the nationwide Coal Board's study institution.

The logic of Science, first released in 1951, is a shiny try and clarify in traditional language how technological know-how is completed and the way scientists imagine. He isolates 3 inventive rules which have been principal to technological know-how: the belief of order, the assumption of motives and the assumption of likelihood. For Bronowski, those have been commonsense principles that turned immensely robust and efficient whilst utilized to a imaginative and prescient of the realm that broke with the medieval concept of a global of items ordered in accordance with their excellent natures. in its place, Galileo, Huyghens and Newton and their contemporaries imagined 'a international of occasions operating in a gentle mechanism of prior to and after'. we're nonetheless dwelling with the results of this look for order and causality in the proof that the area provides to us.

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On Their Own Terms: Science in China, 1550-1900 by Benjamin A. ELMAN

By Benjamin A. ELMAN

because the center of the 19th century, imperial reformers, early Republicans, Guomindang social gathering cadres, and chinese language Communists have all prioritized technology and know-how. during this e-book, Elman supplies a nuanced account of the ways that local chinese language technological know-how developed over 4 centuries, lower than the impression of either Jesuit and Protestant missionaries. in any case, he argues, the chinese language produced smooth technological know-how all alone terms.

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Reise in die Aequinoctial-Gegenden des neuen Continents - by Alexander von Humboldt

By Alexander von Humboldt

Reise in die Aequinoctial-Gegenden des neuen Continents - Band IV
Alexander von Humboldt, deutscher Naturforscher (1769-1859)

«Reise in die Aequinoctial-Gegenden des neuen Continents - Band IV», von Alexander von Humboldt. Ein dynamisches Inhaltsverzeichnis ermöglicht den direkten Zugriff auf die verschiedenen Abschnitte.

Inhaltsverzeichnis
- Präsentation
- Der Cassiquiare - Gabeltheilung Des Orinoco
- Der Obere Orinoco Von Esmeralda Bis Zum Einfluß Des Guaviare
- Die Llanos Del Pao Oder Des Östlichen Strichs Der Steppen Von Venezuela
- Allgemeine Bemerkungen Über Das Verhältniß Des Neuen Zum Alten Continent
- Anmerkungen

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Aspects of Local Government in a Sumbawan Village by Peter R. Goethals

By Peter R. Goethals

Post-colonial social and political swap on the village point has been a massive carrying on with curiosity of the Cornell glossy Indonesia undertaking. within the village experiences it has backed specific realization has been given to the lodgement of strength, political association, and the techniques wherein judgements are made.

Relatively short surveys of 2 to 3 months via Indonesian graduate scholars in the course of 1955-1956 in twenty-three villages on Java and fourteen on Sumatra helped set the degree for next reviews extensive through 4 social anthropologists. those experiences were undertaken in principal Java, in West Java (one close to Bogor and one close to Sumedang) and Sumbawa, respectively by means of Dr. Koentjaraningrat, Dr. Gerald Williams, Andrea Wilcox Palmer, and Dr. Peter Goethals.

The facts accrued and analysed in those experiences can be of curiosity to the political scientist and sociologist drawn to Indonesia in addition to to the anthropologist. In view of the immense components of universal crisis within the examine of those 4 anthropologists, it truly is our wish that their facts will enable a few significant comparability and that the importance of a few in their findings can have a relevance transcending the Indonesian scene and turn out helpful to social scientists operating in different areas.

In any case there might be doubtless as to the intrinsic worth of
Dr. Goethals’ examine and of its importance to social scientists of no matter what self-discipline who're focused on modern Indonesia. established upon years of in depth examine in western Sumbawa, his is the 1st of the village experiences extensive to seem within the Cornell smooth Indonesia Project’s Monograph sequence. - George McT. Kahin, August 1961

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The Selected Works of John W. Cahn by W. Craig Carter,William C. Johnson

By W. Craig Carter,William C. Johnson

This booklet represents a set of 30 chosen papers from the paintings of John W. Cahn. Dr. Cahn is Senior Fellow on the fabrics technological know-how and Engineering Laboratory of the nationwide Institute of criteria and expertise, and is widely known as a founding father of smooth thought and proposal in fabrics technological know-how. the diversity of his examine integrated kinetics and mechanisms of metallurgical part adjustments, surfaces, interfaces, defects, quasicrystals, thermodynamics, and different components impacting the elemental realizing of fabrics technological know-how.

Each paper encompasses a 2-4 web page overview of the effect and historic point of view of the paintings. this is often a tremendous assortment for college students, teachers, and scientists attracted to fabrics science.

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Science and Religion: A Critical Survey by Holmes Rolston

By Holmes Rolston

This landmark publication, first released in 1987, is now again in print, with a new creation through its award-winning writer. An interdisciplinary approach to the critical topics of clinical and spiritual notion, this booklet used to be widely heralded upon its ebook for the richness and intensity of its contribution to the technological know-how and faith dialogue.

 

“notable for its breadth and intensity . . . choked with admirably argued and powerfully offered remedies of severe issues.”—Joseph Pickle, Colorado College, Zygon: magazine of faith and Science

 

“a exceptional and refined book.”—David Foxgrover, Christian Century

 

“a huge paintings . . . [T]he e-book is really outstanding.”—John H. Wright, Jesuit tuition of Theology, Berkeley, Theological Studies

 

“Rolston’s presentation of the tools of technology, in addition to up-to-date summaries of the most achievements of a few of the sciences, is commendable for its readability and important acumen.”—Choice

 

According to Holmes Rolston III, there are primary questions that science alone can't solution; those questions are the primary non secular questions. He makes use of the medical approach to inquiry to distill key concerns from science, and then he integrates them in a research that starts off with subject and moves through lifestyles, brain, tradition, historical past, and spirit. Incorporating spiritual and clinical worldviews, he starts with an examination of 2 ordinary sciences: physics and biology. He then extrapolates examples from human sciences: psychology and sociology. Next, he strikes to the storied universe and international historical past, elevating and addressing religious questions. “Never within the histories of technology and faith have the

opportunities been larger for fertile interplay among those fields, with mutual advantages to both,” states Rolston. The re-publication of this book provides present researchers and scholars within the box a useful, timeless methodological resource.The new creation deals up-to-date insights based on new clinical research. 

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Arming Mother Nature: The Birth of Catastrophic by Jacob Darwin Hamblin

By Jacob Darwin Hamblin

whilst such a lot americans contemplate environmentalism, they suspect of the political left, of vegans wearing organic-hemp textile, lofting protest symptoms. actually, writes Jacob Darwin Hamblin, the movement--and its dire predictions--owe extra to the Pentagon than the counterculture.

In Arming mom Nature, Hamblin argues that army making plans for global warfare III primarily created "catastrophic environmentalism": the concept that human job may perhaps reason international usual mess ups. This expertise, Hamblin exhibits, emerged out of darkish targets, as governments poured money into environmental technology after global conflict II, looking for how you can harness usual processes--to kill hundreds of thousands of individuals. Proposals incorporated using nuclear guns to create man made tsunamis or soften the ice caps to drown coastal towns; environment fireplace to titanic expanses of crops; and altering neighborhood climates. Oxford botanists instructed British generals on the way to break enemy plants throughout the conflict in Malaya; American scientists tried to change the elements in Vietnam. This paintings raised questions that went past the aim of weaponizing nature. via the Nineteen Eighties, the C.I.A. used to be learning the most probably results of worldwide warming on Soviet harvests. "Perhaps one of many surprises of this booklet isn't how little was once identified approximately environmental swap, yet particularly how much," Hamblin writes. pushed before everything by way of strategic imperatives, chilly battle scientists realized to imagine globally and to understand humanity's energy to change the surroundings. "We know the way we will adjust the ionosphere," nuclear physicist Edward Teller proudly acknowledged. "We have already performed it."

Teller by no means repented. yet a number of the similar contributors and associations that helped the Pentagon later warned of world warming and different power mess ups. Brilliantly argued and deeply researched, Arming mom Nature alterations our knowing of the background of the chilly warfare and the start of recent environmental science.

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String Figures as Mathematics?: An Anthropological Approach by Eric Vandendriessche

By Eric Vandendriessche

This publication addresses the mathematical rationality inside the making of string figures. It does so through the use of interdisciplinary equipment borrowed from anthropology, arithmetic, historical past and philosophy of arithmetic. The perform of string figure-making has lengthy been conducted in lots of societies, and especially in these of oral culture. It is composed in making use of a succession of operations to a string (knotted right into a loop), as a rule utilizing the arms and occasionally the ft, the wrists or the mouth. This succession of operations is meant to generate a last determine. The e-book explores diverse modes of conceptualization of the perform of string figure-making and analyses quite a few resource fabric via those conceptual instruments: it appears at learn by means of mathematicians, in addition to ethnographical courses, and private fieldwork findings within the Chaco, Paraguay, and within the Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea, which all give proof of the rationality that underlies this job. It concludes that the construction of string figures can be obvious because the results of highbrow methods, related to the elaboration of algorithms, and ideas similar to operation, sub-procedure, generation, and transformation.

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